Spheres of Knowledge that Require Open-mindedness and Open Data
Sphere of Knowledge Implications for Policy Embedded GIS/Informatics Collaboration
Automated building extraction from LiDAR data
This paper presents some new methods for efficient building extraction using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. One-meter resolution Digital Surface Models (DSM) and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) will be created using spatial interpolation, and a Normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM) will be created from DSM and DEM. As an application example, the nDSM will be used for automated separation of residential areas from commercial and industrial areas in the City of Denton, TX. The residential areas will be further used for population estimation at the census tract, census block group, and census block levels. For accuracy assessment, building areas derived from LiDAR will be compared with the 2000 parcel data in GIS, and population estimates derived from residential areas will be compared with the 2000 census data. The impact of the research includes: (1) facilitate the application of LiDAR data for more accurate land-use mapping; (2) provide an efficient and cost-effective method for population estimation in inter-census years; and (3) provide a new way of redistributing population data at finer grids to support other researches such as epidemic modeling and emergency management and planning.
Acacia koa forest classification and productivity assessment across environmental gradients in Hawaii using fine resolution remotely sensed imagery
Koa (Acacia koa) is an important native tree species in Hawaii economically and ecologically. Different Acacia koa (koa) forest types are found across the elevation and rainfall gradients typical of the Hawaiian Islands. The purpose of this study was to develop methodologies to differentiate these forests and to assess indices and indicators of forest productivity across these gradients using fine resolution remotely sensed imagery. IKONOS satellite imagery was analyzed using advanced statistical modeling and compared to field measurements of productivity indices. The calculation of several vegetation indices that are commonly used in vegetation studies, allowed classification of various koa forest types into micro-regions in wet and dry locations across elevation gradients ranging from 300-850 m. Vegetation indices and image texture parameters strongly related to tree height, N, P and specific leaf area and less strongly with leaf area index and basal area across gradient sites. This allowed development of statistical models that can be used in the assessment of koa forest productivity indices at landscape and regional scales. This will also allow for the application of specific forest management strategies suitable to the environmental conditions and plant requirements for optimal tree growth in each micro-region.
An Algorithm for Autonomous GEO Satellite Navigation Using Multiple GNSS Measurements
Advances in autonomous navigation technologies are essential in order to minimise the cost of operating satellites and maximise their survival capability in harsh conditions. For the last decades, real-time spacecraft navigation based on spaceborne GPS receivers has been a common technique for Low Earth Orbits (LEO) satellites. An extension of this technique to geostationary (GEO) missions has been constrained by the difficulty of GPS receivers to cope with unfavorable conditions in GEO orbits such as poor GPS satellite visibility and weak signal power. The situation will be improved when multi-constellation GNSSs are fully operational. This paper reports on investigations into a navigation algorithm to determine the GEO state vector in real time, using multi-constellation GNSS pseudorange (PR) measurements. Firstly, the visibilities of the current 31 GPS satellites, assumed 24 GLONASS satellites, planned 30 GALILEO satellites and possible 27 COMPASS satellites on the earth equatorial ring has been analyzed. Secondly, the extended Kalman filter is used to blend the orbit dynamics with the PR measurements. Thirdly, the clock biases are modeled and added to the system dynamics because the stability of the navigation filter has a significant impact on the overall navigation performance. That is, the clock biases with respect to each GNSS system time are extended in the state vector. In cases when the number of available satellites is more than four, a satellite signal selection algorithm based on geometry is implemented to ensure only good PDOP measurements are processed. The Monte- Carlo simulation is used to demonstrate the performance of this multiple GNSS-based navigation system using the GEO satellite orbits. Test results with simulated multi-GNSS (including GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO and COMPASS) are presented. It is concluded that this algorithm meets the requirement for GEO satellite's precise autonomous navigation.
A Geographic Focus of the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management System
The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (www.BCO-DMO.org) was created to
serve scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation's Biological and Chemical
Oceanography Sections as a location where marine biogeochemical, ecological, and physical oceanographic
data and information developed in the course of scientific research can easily be stored, disseminated, and
protected, on short and intermediate time-frames. Our main objective is to support the scientific community
through improved accessibility to ocean science data. The BCO-DMO manages existing and new data sets
from individual scientific investigators and collaborative groups of investigators through use of open-source
software, and makes these available via any standard Web browser. This presentation focuses on the current
status of the University of Minnesota's OGC-compliant MapServer interface to these data including the ability to
view the entire data collection in the map view, and multiple ways to select data i.e., by Program, Cruise,
Principal Investigator, Project, Sensor/data type, etc. The presentation also reviews the additional metadata
necessary to support several different data display options. The system's interface provides for simple and
advanced data searches and several interoperability features. Using the MapServer interface to the BCO-DMO
data system provides a geospatial context in which to discover the availability of data sets that are of potential
Analysis of Surface Drainage Paths for Mine Reclamation Using Geographic Information Systems
This study presents an application of GIS-based hydrological modeling and spatial analysis to a coal mining site to effectively control the contaminated surface runoff for mine reclamation. A reliable DEM (Digital Elevation Model) was generated at the study area by detailed topographical surveys. Hydrological analyses were performed to extract the characteristics of drainage system such as flow direction, flow accumulation and catchment area from DEM. The results of spatial analysis showed that some runoff drained through waste dump can flow in the river without any purification. Consequently, several practical actions were suggested to optimize the design of drainage system in the study area for mine reclamation.
Development of an Effective Database Management System for the Skarn/Porphyry Type Ore Deposit
This study presents a prototype of database system for managing geological data from the Skarn/Porphyry type ore deposit. The characteristics of geological data obtained from the Skarn/Porphyry mine development were analyzed and categorized to define the schema of database system such as data fields in tables, the relationships between tables and key index fields to create query functions. The database system was also designed to maintain the digital image data for quantitatively analyzing the discontinuities along the mine tunnel routes. Finally, a prototype of effective database management system that can be used in the mining industry was developed in this study.
Database system for analysing and managing coiled tubing drilling data
This study present a prototype of database system for analysing and managing petrophysical data from coiled tubing drilling in the oil and gas industry. The characteristics of coiled tubing drilling data from cores were analyzed and categorized according to the whole drilling process and data modeling including object relation diagram, class diagram was carried out to design the schema of effective database system such as the relationships between tables and key index fields to create the relationships. The database system called DrillerGeoDB consists of 22 tables and those are classified with 4 groups such as project information, stratum information, drilling/logging information and operation evaluate information. DrillerGeoDB provide all sort of results of each process with a spreadsheet such as MS-Excel via application of various algorithm of logging theory and statistics function of cost evaluation. This presentation describes the details of the system development and implementation.
Estimation of actual evapotranspiration through model coupling and data assimilation with remotely sensed land surface properties
We report on preliminary results from the coupling of two models and satellite observations to track evapotranspiration (ET) dynamics in Northern Great Plains of the USA. The approach takes advantage of high- quality microclimate and irradiance/radiance measurements in a data assimilation scheme to estimate actual ET through a stepwise simulation of foliage dynamics, corrected by remotely sensed land surface properties. We used a recently developed VegET model that uses water balance principles and phenological constraints (Senay 2008) coupled with an event driven phenology model (EDPM) to simulate canopy dynamics unfolding in response to changing environmental conditions and disturbance events. We used NDVI derived from MODIS Collection 5 Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR; MCD43B4V5) to amend the outputs of the EDPM using one-dimensional Kalman filtering to achieve a better representation of changing canopy conditions. The model was trained on level 1 flux tower data from cropland sites at Mead, Nebraska and refined using similar records from Bondville, Illinois. Results from the test runs demonstrated the ability of EDPM to drive the phenological constrains of VegET with reasonable accuracy (RMSE 0.03-0.10 at Nebraska sites). Filtered and unfiltered results from the coupled model were compared with actual evapotranspiration recorded on flux towers and with tower NDVI (Wittich and Kraft 2008). Depending on vegetation type and location, Pearson correlation coefficients between model estimates and observed values ranged between 0.8 and 0.9.
Weathering Grade Classification of Granite Stone Monument Using Reflectance Spectroscopy
Stone monument has been placed in field and exposed to rain and wind. This outdoor environment and air pollution induced weathering of stone monument. Weathering grade classification is necessary to manage and conserve stone monuments. Visual interpretation by geologist and laboratory experiments using specimens fallen off from the monument to avoid damage on the monument have been applied to classify weathering grade conventionally. Rocks and minerals absorb some particular wavelength ranges of electromagnetic energy by electronic process and vibrational process of composing elements and these phenomena produce intrinsic diagnostic spectral reflectance curve. Non-destructive technique for weathering degree assessment measures those diagnostic absorption features of weathering products and converts the depths of features related to abundance of the materials to relative weathering degree. We selected granite outcrop to apply conventional six folded weathering grade classification method using Schmidt hammer rebound teste. The correlations between Schmidt hammer rebound values and absorption depths of iron oxides such as ferric oxide in the vicinity of 0.9 micrometer wavelength and clay minerals such as illite and kaolinite in the vicinity of 2.2 micrometer wavelength, representative weathering products of granite, were analyzed. The Schmidt hammer rebound value decreased according to increase of absorption depths induced from those weathering products. Weathering grade classification on the granite stone monument was conducted by using absorption depths of weathering products This research is supported from National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and we appreciate for this.