MP9: Chapter 10: Grazing Traces (Kimberichnus teruzzii) on Middle Triassic Microbial Matground

From Ichnology: Papers From Ichnia III
by D. Knaust.

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This chapter is from GAC's Miscellaneous Publication 9: "Ichnology: Papers from Ichnia III" editted by Dr. Duncan McIlroy. To purchase the entire book on disc, please see the Miscellaneous Publications section of our bookstore at

Kimberichnus teruzzii Ivantsov, 2013 occurs in the form of delicate striae, arranged sub-parallel to radiating, on microbially modified bedding surfaces (matground) in intertidal carbonates of the epi-continental Middle Triassic of Winterswijk (The Netherlands) and Troistedt (Germany). It is restricted to the bedding surfaces of bio-laminites, indicating a specialised feeding strategy of its tracemaker and specific taphonomic requirements for its preservation. Radula-bearing organisms such as chitons, gastropods and cephalopods are potential producers of K. teruzzii in the Muschelkalk, although other groups of animals (e.g., annelids, arthropods and fish) cannot be ruled out. A comparison of molluscs with a radula from the Germanic Triassic shows that large gastropods and the cephalopod Germanonautilus could be likely candidates to produce K. teruzzii. Following this interpretation, gastropods or Germanonautilus could have scratched the matground during flood tides and maybe while preying on benthic animals. Very similar trace fossils were frequently reported from a few localities with Ediacaran and Cambrian matgrounds, where they were informally described as ‘Radulichnus’ and recently assigned to K. teruzzii, interpreted as the grazing traces of Dickinsonia and Kimberella. Kimberichnus differs from Radulichnus Voigt, 1977 by its occurrence in matground instead of hardground substrate, its morphology, larger size and age distribution.

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